3月4日,2021年3月

锂电池的环境成本

锂是金属,其物理和化学性质使其变得足以被烘烤成润滑剂,陶瓷和其他有用的东西,包括电池。锂离子电池,在20世纪70年代后期发明并为其能量密度和可充值而捏造,是绿色新政的两大支柱的一体化:电动汽车和蓄电。

1月份,一对活动家将在该地区最可爱的山谷中抛出一个帐篷,寻求在公共土地上抵制拟议锂矿的抵抗力。他们建立了抗议营地的地方被称为Thacker通过。Falk和Wilbert,在冬天的寒冷中露营,持续毫无疑问一些小贫困,要求我们认识到所谓可持续经济的生态和环境成本,在该中心是锂电的开采。我们需要了解他们为什么要在Thacker Pass上待命。

一个不到绿色的新交易?

Climate campaigners have decreed that the world’s cars and trucks must switch to electricity — an imperative that was boosted by General Motors’ recent announcement that it intends to sell only electrics after 2035. Climate hawks say biodiesel can’t be done at scale and hydrogen vehicles are years from commercial use, and they’re right, not when American households and businesses own 275 million cars and trucks and drive them over 3 trillion miles each year — making “ground transportation” the country’s biggest source of planet-heating carbon dioxide emissions. Key to the green idea for transportation is to make wind and solar power so plentiful that the electric grid will no longer need generators running on fossil fuels. Electric vehicle battery re-charging — and driving — will then be emission-free and climate-pure.

当然,可再生能源的网格受到风电场和太阳阵列的波动。这就是锂的其他GND连接所采用的地方:供电一次可以一次将电力送入电网的电池堆,连续稳定电力供应。已经,锂离子电池的巨大装配在加利福尼亚举行,可再生能源最远地穿透,使状态能够关闭一些燃烧甲烷的涡轮机。绿色的新交易,在创造就业机会的同时延伸工业文明的威胁框架,以及从化石燃料经济中的“只是过渡”,显然比我们的碳灾难性课程更好。它还取决于大量的锂。我认为,在GND情景中设想的情况下,将所有美国汽车和卡车相互通讯,将需要三到五个Thacker Pass矿山的连续锂产出。供电“实用 - 侧”电网平滑电池需要更多。多少,我不知道。广泛的文献搜索不是单一的单一锂电图数量的单一声明,例如电力存储 - 这是一种指示,也许,绿色新经销商和能源情景 - 旋转器的异化来自物理影响他们的意图。

锂=毁灭性

Falk和Wilbert立场的一个原因是显而易见的:Thacker Pass的锂矿将破坏整个Sagebrush生态系统。介意你,在Thacker通行证的计划不仅仅是一个史诗般的矿山。还将存在巨大的综合体,从开采的矿石中提取锂以将其转化成非挥发性碳酸盐形式,以制成电池。因为在Thacker通过的矿石中的锂浓度低至百分之二的百分比,产生一吨,用于社会使用的东西需要剥离和加工多达500吨地球。Over a single year, producing 60,000 tons of lithium at the site could mean digging up as much as 20 to 30 million tons of earth, more than the annual amount of earth dug up to produce all coal output of all but seven or eight U.S. states. Removing the lithium from the ore is done with the industrial economy’s dissolver of choice, the notoriously corrosive and toxic sulfuric acid. The developer, Canada-based, China-backed Lithium Americas Corp., plans to acidify molten sulfur on site, trucking in the stuff from oil refineries. Hauling the material will require 75 tractor-trailer loads a day, according to Falk and Wilbert — every one of them running on fossil fuels.

不出所料,加工设备比矿山的锂“前可行性研究”(PDF,第228号第228号第228名)预算了十几次的预算,整个企业以超过十亿美元的价格排列。在没有疤痕和污染它的情况下,您不会在仪器上花费大量资金来移动,粉碎,浸出和酸化地球。因此,“保护Thacker通过”横幅。有很多保护。在营地的网站上,Falk和Wilbert将Thacker描述为“山区的一个惊人的生物多样性,狂放,膨胀和美丽的沙漠。”在冬季,他们证明了土地几乎与星星和静止振动。

该货币对Thacker Pass的真正目标是质疑一种依赖大规模资源提取和工业制造的绿色新交易。这意味着不仅质疑社会,而是环境运动默许消费主义和物质增长。他们问,他们问,美国人必须拥有2.75亿车辆吗?Where is it written that we can’t halve that number, to Western European levels, with denser suburbs and Euro-quality transit along with broad cultural changes substituting place and proximity for pointless travel, thus slashing the “need” to replace all those cars and trucks with electric vehicles built from mined lithium? As for grid storage, rate incentives that harmonize electricity usage with its real-time availability could partially supplant batteries. Smaller homes and less air-conditioning of buildings could also trim power demand, period.

收紧监管螺钉会有所帮助

如果在Thacker Pass和其他锂矿的污染排放允许切割十倍的污染排放也会有所不同吗?我相信是这样。这不会仅降低即时地区的生态退化。遵守这些regs的成本将提高碳酸锂的价格。对更高价格的响应 - 从较小的电池组可以获得更轻的车辆,以潜在更高效(因此,较少资源密集的)能源存储媒体 - 将降低需求。美国已经见证了这样的事件:燃煤发电厂。To satisfy regulatory mandates to cut new plants’ soot emissions and acid gases roughly ten-fold, utilities were forced in the 1970s and 1980s to spend billions for scrubbers, precipitators and the like, driving up prices of new coal-fired plants — a progression I documented at the time. Coupled with even more meteoric cost escalation at nuclear power plants, the result was spiraling electric rates that helped spark the revolution in energy efficiency that has all but extinguished growth in electricity demand in the United States.

在那里,在坚果壳中,是碳税背后的逻辑:要按照其真实成本提高化石燃料的价格,从而刺激了他们的使用。锂,不小于煤,油和甲烷,应被迫坚持相同的动态。如果电动车辆和无碳网格呈一段时间更昂贵,那就这样做。工业文明仍在摧毁生态系统,将浪费丢弃到生物多样性,升高其森林掠夺,消耗更多的金属,比以往任何时候都耗尽海洋生活......以及一个解释是为了说出关于底层的真相的价格成本。尽管如此,即使是我的监管的方案也有一个薄弱的环节:全球商业。在美国的山锂使其成本更多,全球资本将在其他地方入住。锂美洲已经在阿根廷运营了一座矿山,矿物质广泛分布在世界各地。为了逃避Whac-a-mole陷阱,粉碎和威尔伯特在内华达州安装的斗争必须在阿根廷,澳大利亚,特别是智利,这是世界上最大的当前提供商。这是一个很高的秩序。 First, though, they have to stop the mine where they’re camped, at Thacker Pass. That’s a tall order too. That lithium is a midwife to a low-carbon economy makes it less ugly than coal and less evil than oil. But all the same, it’s a force that is industrializing the entire planet, to Earth’s and our detriment and, possibly, demise.

一个真正的Sagebrush叛乱

2015年关于Deadbat Cattle Rancher Clive Bundy在联邦放牧费中的武装支出,记者在哈珀·克里普(Harper)写道,所谓的Sagebrush叛乱 - 在公共土地和水中的西方抵抗联邦当局 - 一直以内华达州为中心。叛乱推动了公共土地应最大限度地利用私人收益的有害思想。Falk和Wilbert的叛乱,位于同一个Sagebush荒野中,寻求相反的:“我们优先考虑未来几代人的健康的世界。我们与自然界和谐相处的世界,而不是依靠提取。一个吹掉锂山的世界就像吹掉煤炭的山区一样不可接受。“

资料来源:USA.StreetsBlog.org.