2月18日,2021年

总结俄罗斯重型煤炭依赖的成本

高达70%的俄罗斯煤炭在库兹巴斯开采 - 西北西北部的一个地区,其中大部分煤炭出现在欧洲和亚洲。

在过去15年中发布的官方污染,健康和死亡记录以及当地的污染,以及当地的见证,专业结论和媒体故事,争夺底部,由俄罗斯环保集团逃生的新综合报告,详细介绍了煤炭挖掘对克梅罗沃地区的环境和公共卫生的大规模影响,也称为库兹巴斯。

The immense rise in coal production (primarily, by surface mining) and exports seen in Kemerovo Region in the past decade and a half – a boost spurred along by the authorities’ lax approach to the coal companies’ neglect of social and environmental responsibility – came with skyrocketing pollution and waste accumulation levels. Those, in turn, have led to severe damage to the health of the local population, reduced life expectancy, and higher-than-average mortality rates. Trapped in a predominantly coal-reliant economy and unable to secure compensation or relocation money, local residents are effectively held hostage to Russia’s goal of sustaining a competitive edge in a declining coal market. And the already extensive harm can grow worse yet if Russian and Kuzbass governments press ahead with further plans to increase coal production in the region.

在2005年至2019年期间,Kuzbass的煤炭产量增加了1.5倍(从164米到249吨),并将卷输出2,5次(从55米到135米)。根据区域发展战略所设定的目标,煤炭开采卷可能在未来15年内的近1.5倍,或380吨。Kuzbass的总体死亡率于2019年比俄罗斯平均较高了16%,而在这一主要的煤炭产区中每10万人1425.7人死亡,而俄罗斯范围为每10万人的1228.1死亡。2003年至2019年间Kuzbass的癌症死亡率每10万人的癌症死亡率显着增加,从2003年的208.94年到2019年的240.8稳步上升至240.8.克梅罗沃地区的年呼吸道疾病死亡率在过去近30年中有明显,总是高于国家层面,与官方统计数据以来,自1990年以来,平均每10万人口每10万人持续75.95人,而俄罗斯同期平均为58.98人。1990年到2018年出生时的预期寿命平均在古兹巴斯平均比俄罗斯的平均水平少314岁。

2019年,根据俄罗斯联邦服务的自然资源监督,Kemerovo地区的企业释放了1.760吨大气污染物 - 除了西北联邦区的排放量,其狗万最新版本领土超过夸夸斯巴斯大约18次。In the decade since 2009, according to Kuzbass’s regional Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, the total volume of emissions from stationary sources in Kemerovo Region has risen by 22.3%, and over the past 15 years, the yearly amount of emissions from the coal mining enterprises has nearly doubled, growing from approximately 591,000 tons in 2005 to 1,147,048 tons as of 2019. In 2019 data, the average annual amount of pollutants emitted from stationary sources per each Kuzbass resident was 662 kg; in the past five years the emissions-per-capita rate has increased by 167 kg. By comparison, on average in Russia, the value of emissions of the most common pollutants from both stationary and mobile sources as calculated per capita was in 2018 220 kg per person.

煤矿是温室气体排放的主要来源之一,迫使全球气候变化。在Kuzbass,所有固定源的注册排放量超过50%由甲烷占据,其中一个最具侵略性的温室气体之一。在甲烷排放中,Kemerovo地区是俄罗斯地区的明确领导,2019年发布了1,086,570吨。

在2018年,该地区产生了3.6吨浪费 - 在整个国家的7.3吨吨的几乎一半。在Kuzbass中产生的工业和市政浪费中,99%是煤矿生产的废物。2010年至2019年间,煤炭开采生成的废物的年度体积从1.8吨吨到3.8英镑的吨,或者超过双重。Calculated per ton of coal mined, waste generation rate grew from 10 tons in 2010 to 11.7 tons in 2017. The coal industry’s waste may contain, in varying concentrations, combustible carbonaceous materials, sulphur, and the naturally occurring radionuclides radium-226, thorium-228, and potassium-40, as well as their fission products. The specific land disturbance rate increased between 2010 and 2017 from 7.8 to 16.4 hectares per million tons of coal produced, or by 2.1 times. Existing regulations require establishing buffer areas around coal development sites – 1,000 kilometers from the edge of an open-pit mine and 500 meters from spoil tips, which are piles of waste rock excavated during mining – with zoning restrictions in place to protect the residents in nearby areas. In Kuzbass, this requirement is routinely disregarded throughout the region, especially in such cities as Kiselyovsk and Prokopyevsk, where the distance between residential houses and the closest open-pit mine may be less than 200 meters.

Ecodefense敦促Kemerovo地区的政府立即采取行动区域经济的多样化,以减少对煤炭的依赖。其他迫切需要的步骤包括强迫煤炭公司在矿业地点建立适当的缓冲区,禁止煤炭开采和重新加载在人口中心的范围内,以及禁止农业土地的再划分采矿目的。

“煤炭开采的后果是大规模的环境污染,严重疾病和增加的死亡率。这不仅仅是居住在煤矿附近的人的意义可怕的生活条件,而是对经济造成损害。煤矿地区需要解决环境危机并多样化其经济体的战略,“弗代斯·斯蒂芬·弗里迪亚·普罗维亚·斯蒂维亚·弗里迪亚·斯蒂芬和作者之一争夺底部

“城市限制内的煤炭挖掘和重新加载,这是燃烧和释放粉尘进入空气的数十亿吨的破坏堆 - 这是Kuzbass的典型场景。由于气候变化,许多国家计划停止煤炭使用,这将导致需求下降。Kuzbass需要在其工作市场中的选择,或者我们将面临社会动荡,“Anton Lementuyev,Ecodefense在Kuzbass的协调员。

来源:ecodefense.ru.